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Peer Exchanges, Planning for a Better Tomorrow, Transportation Planning Capacity Building

Transportation Planning Capacity Building Program

— Peer Exchange Report —

Best Practices in Bicycle Facilities Planning

Location: Chicago, Illinois
June 13, 2008
Exchange Host Agency:
Chicagoland Bicycle Coalition / Chicago Department of Transportation
Exchange Participants: Mid-Ohio Regional Planning Commission (MORPC)
Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT)
Federal Transit Administration (FTA), Region V
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Ohio Division Office
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), Volpe Center

I. Introduction

This report summarizes proceedings from a one-day Peer Exchange on "Best Practices in Bicycle Facilities Planning" supported by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) Transportation Planning Capacity Building (TPCB) Program. The event was hosted by staff from the Chicagoland Bicycle Coalition and the City of Chicago's Department of Transportation in downtown Chicago, Illinois.

The overall goal of this peer exchange was to improve knowledge of best practices in bicycle facilities planning1 for transportation planners and engineers in the 11-county Columbus, Ohio, region through both a peer exchange as well as a hands-on experience riding city streets during peak commute hours. 4-hour morning riding tour of Chicago streets was followed by an afternoon presentation on foundations of high-quality bicycle facilities design by long-time Chicago city traffic engineer John LaPlante at the headquarters of the Chicagoland Bicycle Coalition. The Mid-Ohio Regional Planning Commission (MORPC, the MPO for Columbus, OH) had requested the exchange to better support its local jurisdictions ability to comply with the recently adopted Regional Bikeways Plan, as well as MORPC's "routine accommodation" policy for bicyclists and pedestrians, passed in 2004.

TPCB program staff from the U.S. DOT Volpe Center attended to support the event as well as to document proceedings. The report includes the following sections:

  1. Introduction
  2. Background
  3. Overview of Morning Bike Tour
  4. How to Develop Bicycle Facilities and Promote Better, Safer Biking
  5. Key Contacts
  6. Attachments, including full participant list, event agenda, and links to relevant resources/information along with presenter organization websites

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II. Background

In 2004, the Mid-Ohio Regional Planning Commission (MORPC)2 adopted a "routine accommodation" policy requiring all projects funded through MORPC-attributable Federal funds to include bicycle and pedestrian facilities. The decision of what specific types of facilities (e.g., bike lanes/paths, bike parking facilities, bike racks on buses, paved shoulders, etc.) should be included in each project, however, was left to the discretion of individual project sponsors and/or developers.

As a result of MORPC's new policy, communities in its planning region must now routinely plan and construct bicycle and pedestrian facilities as part of larger projects if they want to use MORPC's Federal transportation monies to fund those projects. This has led to a number of significant milestones for bicycle planning in the region. For example:

  • The Central Ohio Transit Authority (COTA) installed bike racks on all of its buses in 2004 and by 2006 it counted 3,000 bike boardings per month.
  • In 2006, MORPC adopted a Regional Bikeways Plan to guide development of its regional bicycle network.

Despite these achievements, MORPC faces several challenges to enhancing bicycle planning efforts for everyday transportation in the region. First, the existing network of non-recreational bicycle facilities is small. Although there are 387 miles of "bikeways"3 in the MORPC planning region, the vast majority of those are shared-use recreational trails running along the several rivers flowing through the region; only 12 miles of striped, on-street bike lanes currently exist. This forces non-recreational cyclists who want or need to use their bikes for everyday transportation to ride along heavily trafficked arterials lacking adequate accommodations for safe/convenient cycling. The situation not only presents real safety concerns4 but also creates a psychological barrier that prevents many people who would want to use their bikes more often (if appropriate accommodations existed) from doing so.

A second challenge is that relatively few transportation planners and engineers working in MORPC's planning region, especially in the more suburban communities and counties, have much prior experience with bicycle facilities' design and construction. Building the familiarity, comfort, and technical capacity of transportation professionals in the MORPC region with high-quality bicycle facilities design and operation could support regional goals to expand and improve the region's bicycle network. For this reason, MORPC planners and engineers participated in this FHWA/FTA-sponsored peer event with the city of Chicago, a city with extensive experience in this arena, to tour facilities and learn from the Chicago experience.

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III. Overview of Morning Bike Tour

From 7:00 am to noon, the peer exchange group was led on a 16-mile tour of bicycle facilities in and around downtown Chicago. The tour was led by David Gleason, the Managing Bikeways Traffic Engineer for the City of Chicago's Department of Transportation. It was designed to provide riders with a direct experience riding high-volume urban arterials during the heavily trafficked morning commute hours and expose participants to a wide variety of bicycle facility treatments, including:

  • Striped bike lanes
  • Colored bike lanes
  • Shared bike/bus lanes
  • Intersection improvements
  • Bus interactions
  • Bike parking
  • Bike signage
  • Bridge treatments
  • Traffic-calmed streets

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IV. How to Develop Bicycle Facilities and Promote Better, Safer Biking

Following the morning bike tour, participants gathered at the headquarters of the Chicagoland Bicycle Federation (CBF) for a presentation on how to select, design, and maintain a network of high-quality bicycle facilities by John LaPlante, a longtime traffic engineer with the City of Chicago. This was followed by conversation with Rob Sadowski, Executive Director of the CBF, on how CBF promotes more and better cycling in the Chicago region through advocacy, outreach, and education.

1: Guide on the Development of Bicycle Facilities
John LaPlante, Vice-President/Chief Transportation Planning Engineer, T.Y. Lin International, Inc.

Mr. LaPlante previously worked as an engineer and planner for the City of Chicago for 30 years, where he had extensive experience with bicycle and pedestrian facilities design and held positions including Engineer of Traffic Planning, Chief City Traffic Engineer, First Deputy Commissioner of Public Works, and Acting Commissioner of Transportation (where he was responsible for the planning, design, and construction of all roads, bridges, and mass transit facilities in the City of Chicago). Mr. LaPlante is a Fellow of the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE), where he now serves as an alternate delegate to the National Committee on Uniform Traffic Control Devices, the committee that develops the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD), and chairs the newly-formed Pedestrian Task Force. He is also the American Public Works (APW) Association representative on the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Geometric Design Task Force, which prepares the Greenbook, and was Chair of the Subcommittee that prepared the most recent edition of AASHTO's Bike Guide.

The intention of Mr. LaPlante's presentation was to serve as an introduction and guide for the first-time developer of bicycle facilities and reinforce the notion that "bikes belong" in all aspects of transportation planning and engineering. The presentation covered several broad topics:

  • Planning
  • Design
  • Operations and maintenance

Mr. LaPlante opened with some historical context. The original push to improve and pave roads in the U.S. in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, known as the "Good Roads Movement," came from the League of American Wheelman and other recreational and everyday bicyclists demanding improved riding conditions and not from car owners because the automobile was not in wide enough use at that point to spur major infrastructure investments. In this sense, the growing interest today of transportation planners and engineers in "complete streets" — streets that accommodate not only automobiles but all users, including bicyclists and pedestrians — is a case of "back to the future."

Now, after decades of neglect, advocates for more and better integration of bicycling concerns in transportation planning and engineering are seeing the fruits of their labor. Major design manuals such as the AASHTO Greenbook5 and the AASHTO Bike Guide now stipulate that bicycle needs should be addressed in all types of transportation projects throughout all phases of project development, even on highways (except for those on which bicycle traffic is explicitly prohibited). Mr. LaPlante re-emphasized this point by expressing that, coming from one engineer to another, "If your streets can't handle bikes, pedestrians, buses, cars, and trucks all together, then you're not doing your job because it's not a complete street!"

Increased safety is a major justification for making investments in bicycle facilities. Studies have shown that accommodating bicycles in street design improves safety for everyone. For example, it is possible to reduce bicycle fatality rates in half by simply adding bicycle lanes to existing streets and roads. If planners and engineers do not stripe bike lanes, many bikers will opt for riding on the sidewalk, but sidewalks are five times as dangerous as conventional streets and 10 times more dangerous than streets with bike lanes. Additionally, only 10 percent of bike fatalities are cyclists being hit from behind; the overwhelming majority of fatalities are angle collisions when bicyclists are crossing a street or driveway in a crosswalk or heading the wrong direction down a street against traffic. By striping bike lanes, you can reduce the number of people riding in the wrong direction and on the sidewalk, so in terms of safety, everyone benefits from bicycle lanes, not just bike riders. Installing bike lanes has also been found to increase the incidence of bicyclists stopping at red lights, which helps increase bicycle safety in intersections.

Bicycles can be accommodated on streets through good design at the project level; but in order for bicycle planning efforts to be most effective, these projects must be planned and integrated as part of a systems approach. Rather than building bike facilities individually and/or in isolation, Mr. LaPlante emphasized the importance of developing projects that support an overarching vision of a continuous, interconnected bicycle network. The network should include multiple bikeway elements and serve a range of user types and bicycle skills/comfort levels. A common typology describing this range of biking abilities and comfort levels (and mnemonic for remembering them) is found by remembering the "ABCs."

  • "A" is for Advanced Cyclist — These are the experienced cyclists with a high comfort level who will bike under most traffic conditions and on most street types. Advanced bikers will likely ride even when no bicycle facilities are present, even on heavy volume arterials. As such, they may be the most visible and outspoken bikers in a community before bicycle facilities are developed.
  • "B" is for Basic Cyclist — These are the interested but less experienced adult or teenaged cyclists who are less confident and comfortable biking in traffic without special facilities or provisions. They may feel very comfortable riding on a separated path but are not likely to ride on city streets unless bike lanes or other facilities are present.
  • "C" is for Child Cyclist — These are the least experienced and most vulnerable cyclists who should never ride on heavy volume streets without bicycle facilities, special safety provisions, or parental accompaniment/supervision.
Photo of a car and a cyclist sharing the road.

When designing a system, you must plan for and accommodate all three experience/comfort levels. The selection of which facilities to build and where to build them should reflect the existence of all three levels and their varying degrees of comfort and safety using different facility types. Mr. LaPlante explained that only about 5 percent of all bikers fit into the "advanced cyclist" category; 95 percent of cyclists overall are "basic" or "child" cyclists. In order to design a system that meets everyone's needs, planners and engineers must think more intentionally about how to accommodate bikers with relatively less experience and comfort riding. The most common bicycle accommodations are:

Shared Roadway/Lane — A shared roadway/lane is any corridor that does not prohibit bicycle use but does not have a designated (i.e., painted) bike lane. This is where most bicycle travel currently takes place. Width is a key consideration in whether roadways can accommodate bicycle travel. Widths of 14 or more feet are wide enough for cars and bicycles to be traveling alongside one another in a shared lane. A minimum of 12 feet is needed for on-street car parking to exist next to a bicycle lane.

Photo of a car with a bike lane next to it.

Signed Shared Roadway/Lane — Shared roadways can be made more bicycle friendly by posting signage designating particular streets as preferred routes for bikes. Signage can be posted next to speed limits, stop signs, etc. along the roadside or painted directly on the street surface. "Sharrows" are an example of the latter; they are stencils painted on the road surface for both motorists and bikers to see, which reinforces the concept of sharing the lane (see photo). Ideally, the stencil designs are 36 inches wide and painted 11 feet out from the curb (the entire width of the shared lane is 14 feet).

Photo of a car and a cyclist in the bicyble lane beside it.

Bike Lanes —l Bicycle lanes delineate the right of way for bicyclists, separate from motorists, on new or existing roads. They need to be a minimum of 5 feet wide and are most appropriate to install on urban thoroughfares, rather than in rural areas. Installing bike lanes on existing roads requires reducing the width of the motorists' travel lane (which, in turn, reduces their travel speeds), which is often referred to as a "road diet."

Paved Shoulders — In rural areas where separate bike lanes may not be possible or feasible, paved shoulders can accommodate bicyclists. Shoulders should be at least 4 feet wide to accommodate bicyclists and can serve as a breakdown lane for motorists as well.

Photo of a car with a cyclist riding on the shoulder of the road beside it.

Caution about Shoulders — Rumblestrips are not recommended for shoulders that bicyclists use often. Also, unpaved shoulders are never appropriate for bicyclists to be riding on.

Photo of a shared use path.

Shared-Use Path — Shared-use paths are separated paths designed for cyclists, pedestrians, skaters, wheelchairs, joggers, walkers, and other non-motorized users alike. Canals, waterfront corridors, and old rail lines often provide good opportunities for developing shared-use paths. They can be used for longer distance commuter routes when developed adjacent to residential areas and office parks or lead to/from major employment and residential centers.

Photo of bicycles parked in a row.

Bicycle parking — It's not enough to provide facilities for riding bikes if, at the end of a trip, there is nowhere for bicycles to park. Whether low-cost U-shaped racks bolted into the sidewalk or higher-cost covered parking stalls, garages, or cages, providing for cyclists' bicycle parking needs is an essential element for creating an effective bicycle network. The City of Chicago has installed 11,000 racks for parking in its jurisdiction, paid for through Federal Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) funds. In some cities, developer exactions can be used to have developers fund bike parking installations. Mr. LaPlante and CBF staff recommended that agencies pay attention to the vendor and design they decide to invest in because not all bike racks function equally well.

A summary of the needs and appropriate accommodations for varying bicycle user types is found in the table below:

Table I: Bicycle User Types, Needs, and Accommodations:
Type of Bicyclist Needs Accommodations
A — Advanced
(5% of all riders)
  • Direct access to destinations
  • Ability to ride at a maximum speed with minimal delays
  • Sufficient operating space
  • Enforced speed limits
  • Wide curb lanes (urban)
  • Paved shoulders (rural)
B — Basic
C — Child
(combined 95% of all riders)
  • Comfortable access to key destinations
  • Low speeds and low volumes
  • Well-defined separation on roadway
  • Ensure lower speeds
  • Bike lanes, paths, or routes
  • Paved Shoulders

Mr. LaPlante spent considerable time talking about bike lanes since they are the preferred accommodation for making the vast majority of cyclists comfortable riding on urban arterials. Mr. LaPlante described road diets, which usually involve reconfiguring a four-lane roadway to three lanes with one lane in each direction, a two-way left turn lane, and room left over for bikes and/or parking. Road diets are a "win-win" for all road users and can work successfully on roads with up to 20,000 average daily traffic (ADT) counts. They provide room and legitimacy for bikes on the road and significantly reduce crashes. On average, road diets reduce crashes by 50 percent; but on one of his projects, a road diet reduced crashes from 12 to 1 at a particularly difficult intersection. A visual example of a road diet can be found below:

Graphic of four motor lanes without bike lanes and three motor lanes with bike lanes.

Sometimes, traffic engineers question the feasibility of retrofitting bike lanes into existing road infrastructure because they argue there is insufficient right-of-way (ROW). However, by reducing existing lane widths, Mr. LaPlante explained that engineers can usually find enough ROW to make bike retrofits work. In Chicago, for example, with 44-foot face-to-face roads with 17,000 ADT, they have successfully readjusted lanes with a 5-7-10 retrofit (bike-parking-travel lane). As an additional bonus, crashes went down 10 percent overall and 15 percent at intersections. A recently completed National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) study found that on urban arterials with posted speeds of 45 miles per hour or less, there is no difference in crashes on lanes that are 10-, 11-, or 12-feet wide. With these results in mind, Mr. LaPlante emphasized his belief that there is no reason to put a 12-foot lane in an urban area ever again. He recommended that engineers not use 70 miles per hour design standards (i.e., 12-foot lanes) in urban areas on 30 miles per hour streets.

Bike lanes should be a minimum of five feet wide (though four feet is allowed if there is no curb) and run one way with the direction of traffic on the adjacent motor lane. Prior to 1999, a diamond symbol used to be placed inside to designate it as a bike lane, but this is no longer recommended because a diamond shape is also the symbol for a high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane and has been known to confuse motorists.

Photo of a road's storm drain.

There are a number of maintenance considerations that need to be accounted for when installing bike lanes. In terms of surfacing, the striping wears with time and will need to be kept up, and potholes and pavement imperfections are more damaging and dangerous for bikes than they are for cars. Raised pavement markings should not be used on/near bike facilities as they can get slippery when wet and are dangerous for cyclists. Adequate drainage should be provided to ensure that bike lanes do not get flooded, and old drainage gates should be updated with corrective metal strips placed perpendicularly every 4 inches to make sure they are safe for cyclists. Related to this, railroad crossing should always be designed at a 90-degree angle so that tires do not get stuck in the flange. Also, because bridges with grating are difficult to retrofit, building bike treatments to increase safety early on is strongly recommended.

Photo of a road with a bikelane spiking off.

In most circumstances, you should not extend bicycle lanes through intersections. Similarly, bike lanes should not be extended into roundabouts. When properly constructed, single-lane roundabouts slow traffic to 20 mile per hour so it is safe and appropriate for bicycles to share the space. Approaching major intersections with right-only turn lanes, however, often calls for additional striping close to the intersection (see photo to right).

After a discussion of bike lanes, Mr. LaPlante turned his attention to shared-use paths. He explained that there is ongoing debate in the cycling world about which are better for accommodating the needs of inexperienced cyclists—on-street bike facilities or separated shared-use paths. Though it may be counterintuitive, studies show that on-street facilities such as shared lanes are actually safer than separated paths because the visibility to motorists (especially at high-volume intersections with lots of turns) is so much better. For this reason, current design guidelines, such as AASHTO's Bike Guide, stipulate that "Shared-use paths should not preclude on-road bicycle facilities, but should be considered as complementary to a system of on-road bike lanes."

Mr. LaPlante explained that there are a number of overarching considerations and specific factors that participants should consider when developing bicycle networks and facilities in the Columbus, Ohio, region. These considerations include:

  • Skill level of users
  • Motor vehicle parking
  • Barriers (physical, regulatory, cultural)
  • Crash reduction
  • Directness of routing
  • Accessibility of facilities
  • Aesthetics and design
  • Personal safety/security
  • Stops — how/where
  • Potential conflicts
  • Maintenance of facilities
  • Pavement surface quality
  • Trucks and bus traffic
  • Bridges
  • Intersection conditions
  • Costs/funding
  • State and local law and ordinances
  • Education and user support/outreach

More specific factors to address and take into consideration in the selection and development of bike facilities are:

  • Always think about the parking implications of your plans and designs — Motorist parking is a very politically sensitive issue that must be addressed in any new bicycle facilities planning. If you do not want to spark anti-bike sentiment, Mr. LaPlante recommends not removing any existing parking as part of your bicycle plans and designs. Also, for safety reasons, diagonal street parking is not recommended unless it is back-in parking because it makes it very hard for motorists to see approaching cyclists. On the design side, a minimum of 12 feet of combined bike and parking space is required for safe, comfortable shared-use.
  • Sidewalks are never a good alternative route instead of installing facilities on the street — The AASHTO Bike Guide stipulates that designated use of sidewalks as bike facilities is "unsatisfactory" and, in general, "should not be encouraged." The only exceptions would be (a) for children, (b) on long narrow bridges, or (c) where there is no safe alternative and curb cuts and stop signs exist at every intersection.
Photo of a bike route traffic sign.
  • Signage is an important component of developing new bicycle facilities — Signage is useful for helping new cyclists develop familiarity with the overall network and how they can use it to get to multiple destinations. To be effective in urban areas, signage should be placed about every quarter mile and at all turns and major signalized intersections. Be sure it addresses the "Three Ds": distance, direction, and destination. When installing bike signage for shared roadways, consider taking the following actions:
    • Adjust traffic control devices accordingly
    • Remove/restrict/redesign street parking
    • Width is also a key consideration in whether roadways can accommodate bicycle travel
    • Improve riding surface to better accommodate bikes
    • Increase routine maintenance, especially sweeping (e.g., for glass or other small sharp objects)
    • If you are not installing bike lanes, be sure that existing lanes are wide enough to accommodate motorists and bicyclists together
  • Building new bicycle facilities should always be accompanied by education and outreach to the public — It is critical to reach out and help educate the public about new facilities, both to alert them to where the new facilities exist as well as to demonstrate how best to use them. Many cities are now creating "Bicycle Ambassador" programs that offer free workshops in community centers and schools about how to safely take advantage of urban bike facilities. Often, the education will have to go both ways. For example, one of the biggest risks to cyclists is being "doored" when bike lanes are installed to the left of on-street parking. Cyclists need to learn how to constantly be on the look-out for potential hazards like this, but motorists also need education to be made aware of new bike facilities and remember to always look before opening their car door. In Illinois, the state legislature passed a law to make it illegal to open your car door into a bike lane without looking first, but outreach had to be done to increase drivers' awareness of this new legal responsibility.6

2: Effective Bicycle Outreach and Advocacy
Rob Sadowski, Executive Director, Chicagoland Bicycle Coalition (CBF)

Founded in 1985, the CBF is a 5,000-member non-profit organization whose mission is to improve the bicycling environment in metro Chicago. CBF works to achieve its mission as part of a broad multi-modal coalition that recognizes the synergies between promoting biking, walking, and transit together and brands bicycling as an energy-efficient, economical, and nonpolluting form of transportation as well as a healthful and enjoyable form of recreation. CBF's 30-plus member staff promotes bicycle safety, education, and facilities through a variety of advocacy and outreach programs. For example, CBF provides all the staffing needed to manage the City of Chicago's Pedestrian Program and 80 percent of the staff needed for its Bike Program.

Encouraging more and better maintenance of existing facilities is an important component of CBF's work. Bike lanes do not have their own separate maintenance budget and must compete for priority with all the city's other maintenance needs. To demonstrate needs more effectively, CBF hires people to ride the entire bicycle network and report problems in the inventory to identify where maintenance needs are most critical. In terms of facilities, CBF is also working with the city to encourage more and better enforcement of existing zoning regulations that require bike parking. CBF is also working to have bike parking accepted as a requirement for buildings to receive Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)7 Certification.

Outreach and education is another important component of CBF's work. It has been able to fund a Bicycle Ambassadors Program with Federal Section 402 Safety funds (which do not require a local match). Ambassadors receive training from CBF in bicycle safety and outreach and then provide information and biking support at music festivals in Grant Park and at neighborhood health fairs, block parties, farmers' markets, and other events. This outreach takes place year round but is particularly concentrated in the summer months. Ambassadors also give bicycle safety demonstrations at day camps, libraries, and city schools, as well as bike-to-work presentations for area businesses. The program has been so successful that there is now a Junior Ambassadors Program where each adult Ambassador is paired with two to three high school students. Because so much of the outreach targets schools and after school programs, Mr. Sadowski felt that, at some point, most kids in the city school district have seen Ambassadors giving presentations on bike riding and bike safety. Chicago has one of the highest rates of helmet use in the country even though there is no ordinance requiring it, and Mr. Sadowski felt that the Bicycle Ambassadors Program is part of the reason for that achievement.

CBF runs a number of other training and outreach programs. Staff and volunteers offer free valet bike parking at many big city events, and CBF is working with the city to expand this to include every sports event that takes place each year. CBF also works with major employers in the Chicago region year round to promote and incentivize bicycling as a commuting option. During the Bike to Work Week that CBF organizes, the Commuter Challenge Program gets companies to compete against one another for the highest percentage of bike commuters.(?) This gets about 10,000 participants a year, but CBF is hoping to expand this if its latest bicycle marketing program proposal is accepted for CMAQ funding by the region's Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO). The CBF is hoping to work with the Illinois Secretary of State, who oversees drivers' licenses, to develop "mobility education," which would expand upon the traditional driver's education to include topics on bicycle and pedestrian travel and safety.

CBF is committed to building a strong partnership with the Chicago Police Department to help enforce traffic rules and make the roadway system safer for bicyclists. In order to do so, CBF realized it could not talk about bicycle safety in a vacuum. Most fatalities from crashes are motorists, so in order to appeal to police, CBF frames its work as part of making the overall system safer for everyone, including (not only) bicyclists. CBF is also making the argument with police that: "The more resources you put into traffic management, the more resources you invest in crime prevention." Mr. Sadowski observed that having more policemen patrolling on bikes has also helped to strengthen this relationship. CBF is currently working with several sheriffs to develop training for their staffs, as well as developing a video that could be used at roll calls.

CBF has also collaborated with the police to organize a "crosswalk sting." With a grant from the state, CBF paid police to patrol an unsafe crosswalk known to have a particularly high rate of violations. The newspaper gave residents fair warning two days prior, advertising exactly which crosswalks police would be patrolling and when. Yet, in just 2 hours, police handed out more than 200 citations for motorist violations. This made the front page of the newspaper the following morning and was covered on every local news channel, successfully garnering public attention on the issue of bicycle and pedestrian safety.

Mr. Sadowski closed by observing that the time is ripe for renewed attention to bicycle transportation and that cities are well positioned to take advantage of new opportunities to fund the expansion of their bicycle networks through private sources in addition to conventional, public sources. For example, a cap-and-trade system for carbon emissions and credits may be included in Federal energy legislation, and cities could build bike parking and sell resulting emissions reductions as revenues generating carbon credits. For cities with populations of 200,000 or more, large-scale bike programs like the aggressive Velib Paris can successfully generate mode shift towards bicycles for short city trips at a relatively low cost to the city because they are installed and operated by private companies, which finance them through advertising and street furniture sales.

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V. Key Contacts

Key Contact: Bernice Cage
Address: Mid-Ohio Regional Planning Commission
111 Liberty Street, Suite 100
Columbus, Ohio 43215
Phone: 614.228.2663
Key Contact: John LaPlante
Address: T.Y. Lin International
200 S. Wacker Dr, Suite 1400
Chicago, IL 60606
Phone: 312.777.2887
Key Contact: Rob Sadowski
Address: Chicagoland Bicycle Federation
9 W. Hubbard St., Ste. 402
Chicago, IL 60610-6545
Phone: 312.427.3325
Key Contact: Elizabeth Murphy, Community Planner, USDOT Volpe Center
Address: USDOT / Volpe National Transportation Systems Center
55 Broadway
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone: 617.494.3137
Fax: 617.494.3260

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VI. Attachments

A: Participant List

Peer Hosts and Organizers
Name Organization Title E-mail
John LaPlante T.Y. Lin International Vice President
Rob Sadowski Chicagoland Bicycle Federation Director
David Gleason Chicago Department of Transportation Transportation Engineer
Bernice Cage Mid-Ohio Regional Planning Commission Principal Planner / Bicycle Planner
Elizabeth Murphy USDOT / Volpe Center Community Planner, TPCB Peer Program Coordinator

Mid-Ohio Regional Planning Commission Peer Participants
Name Organization Phone E-mail
Steve Tweed City of Columbus 614-645-5236
Nicholas Popa City of Columbus 614-695-0543
Noel Mehlo FHWA Ohio Division 614-280-6841
Jim Hutcherson COTA 614-308-4373
Holly Grimes ODOT 740-833-8370
John Gideon Consider Biking 614-844-3954
Brian Moore Burgess and Niple 614-459-2050
Reginald Arkell FTA, Region V 312-886-3704
Jessica Piatt City of Delaware 740-203-1724
Darryl Hughes Grove City 614-277-1101
Mike Andrako Gahanna 614-342-4050
John O'Neal CMAP 312-386-8822
Ted Beidler Franklin County Engineer 614-462-3020
Nick Shultz EMH&T 614-775-4642
Letty Schamp City of Hilliard 614-334-2456
Susan Banbury City of Westerville 614-901-6665

B: Agenda

Program for Monday, October 29, 2007
Begin End  
7:00 am 7:15 am Welcome and Introductions
7:15 am 12:00 pm 16-Mile Riding Tour of Bicycle Facilities in Chicago:
  • Striped bike lanes
  • Colored bike lanes
  • Shared bike/bus lanes
  • Intersection improvements
  • Bus interactions
  • Bike parking
  • Bike Signage
  • Bridge treatments
  • Traffic-calmed streets
12:00 pm 1:00 pm Lunch and Bicycle Return
1:00 pm 3:15 pm John LaPlante — Guide to Developing Bicycle Facilities
3:15 pm 3:30 pm Afternoon Break
3:30 pm 4:00 pm Rob Sadowski — on "How the Chicagoland Bicycle Federation promotes more, better, and safer bicycling in metro-Chicago"
    End of Peer Exchange

C: Participant Organization Websites

Mid-Ohio Regional Planning Commission (MORPC)

City of Chicago's Department of Transportation (CDOT), Bike program

Chicagoland Bicycle Federation (CBF)

Transportation Planning Capacity Building (TPCB) Program

D. Links to Resources on Bicycle Facilities Planning

Provide links to bicycle planning resources?
The Bicycle and Pedestrian Information Center

TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 500,
Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan: A Guide for Reducing Collisions Involving Bicycles

TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 552, Guidance for Analysis of Investments in Bicycle Facilities

FHWA Design Guidance on Accommodating Bicycle and Pedestrian Travel

Draft Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices (for public comment)

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1 The focus of this workshop was on bicycle facilities for everyday transportation, rather than recreational bikeways and trails. (back)

2 MORPC is the Columbus, Ohio region's federally designated Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO). (back)

3 "Bikeways" here, refers to any road, path, or way which in some manner is specifically designated as being open to bicycle travel, whether designated for the exclusive use of bicycles or to be shared with other transportation modes. (back)

4 For example, between 2000 and 2004 there were more than 1,500 bicycle and motor vehicle crashes in the MORPC planning area. (back)

5 AASHTO stands for the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials and most people know its design book as the "Greenbook." (back)

6 In some instances good design can help lessen the burden of educating motorists, however. For example, Mr. LaPlante noted than when bike lanes were installed on Milwaukee Ave, car traffic shifted two feet to the left almost immediately, without any formal announcement or education outreach or anything! (back)

7 LEED stands for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, which is one of the most well-known certifications for designating "green" buildings. (back)

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